APPENDIX III: STATEMENTS &/OR POLICIES OF PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS

{Info provided through the gracious courtesy of Mitch King of Charlottesville, VA, who used them in presentations to his local school boards.}

EDUCATION-RELATED PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS' SEXUAL ORIENTATION POLICIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS AS OF 95 JUN 30

Containing a summary of the sexual orientation policies and recommendations of the following education-related professional associations:

  1. American Federation of Teachers
  2. American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists
  3. National Association of Elementary School Principals
  4. National Association of State Boards of Education
  5. National Education Association
  6. National School Boards Association
  7. American Association of Classified School Employees
  8. National Association of Secondary School Principals and the National Association of Student Councils
  9. American Medical Womens Association
[Editor's Note: The sexual orientation policies and recommendations of other education-related professional associations will be added to this list as they become available.]

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KEEPING INFORMED: THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF TEACHER'S (AFT'S) POSITION ON SEXUAL ORIENTATION
Received 95 May 26 from the American Federation of Teachers, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW, Washington, DC, 20001. Voice: 800-238-1133 or 202-879-4400.

Table of Contents
Discrimination
Discrimination Against Homosexuals Denounced 1
Job Discrimination 1
Educational Equity for Sexual Minorities 2
Public Policy
Rights to Individuals to Personal and Political Preferences 2
Labor and Educational Equity for Sexual Minorities 3
Rights of Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual People 3
Action Against Aids 4
Hate Groups
Ku Klux Klan 4
Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party 5
Resurgence of Prejudice and Violence 5
Opposition to Prejudice Against Students 6
Contract Language
Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation 6
Bereavement Leave 7
Domestic Partner Benefits 7
Constitution and Bylaws
AFT Constitution 8
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DISCRIMINATION

DISCRIMINATION AGAINST HOMOSEXUALS DENOUNCED

WHEREAS, professional people insist that they be judged on the basis of professional and not personal criteria, and

WHEREAS, it is the responsibility of trade unions to provide job protection from all forms of discrimination that is not based on performance such as race, color, sex, religion, age, or ethnic origin;

RESOLVED, that the American Federation of Teachers protests any personnel actions taken against any teachers merely because he or she practices homosexual behavior in private life. (Executive Council 1970)

JOB DISCRIMINATION

WHEREAS, The American Federation of Teachers has in the past strongly supported laws against job discrimination because of race, color, sex, or national origin, and

WHEREAS, the 1973 AFT Convention passed a resolution opposing punitive action against teachers because of acts committed in their private lives, unless such act could be shown to affect fitness to teach, and

WHEREAS, both the American Federation of Teachers and the California Labor Federation, AFL-CIO, strongly opposed the 1978 California ballot initiative which would, if passed, have required that teachers be fired for engaging in homosexual activity in private, and

WHEREAS, no employee should be discriminated against because of their private sex preference;

RESOLVED, that the American Federation of Teachers supports amendment of the federal laws relating to job discrimination because of sexual preference. (1979)

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EDUCATIONAL EQUITY FOR SEXUAL MINORITIES

WHEREAS, a 1988 study by the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania indicates a sharp increase in incidents of harassment and violence in the educational setting against students, based upon identified or perceived sexual orientation, and

WHEREAS, the American Federation of Teachers is aware of the increasing efforts of educators nationwide to ensure the fair and representative treatment of gay and lesbian people as part of the ongoing processes of curricular revision, instructional media/resources selection, counseling services and staff development programs;

RESOLVED, that the AFT condemns this prejudicial harassment and violence against students, and

RESOLVED, that the AFT supports the right of all students to an affirmative, positive, equitable and safe educational environment. (1990)

PUBLIC POLICY

RIGHTS TO INDIVIDUALS TO PERSONAL AND POLITICAL PREFERENCES

WHEREAS, a person's lifestyle, sexual preference, and political association are an individual's choice, with freedom of choice being an integral part of the democratic process, and

WHEREAS, the activities which educational workers and others carry on in their personal lives do not relate to their abilities to perform in a professional capacity;

RESOLVED, that the 1977 Convention go on record supporting legislation and other reforms which prohibit discrimination in employment and the abrogation of individual liberties based on an individual's personal and political references. (1977)

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LABOR AND EDUCATIONAL EQUITY FOR SEXUAL MINORITIES

WHEREAS, the AFT opposes discrimination in any form against any group or individual, and

WHEREAS, this opposition needs constant effort to ensure non-discrimination, and

WHEREAS, the American Federation of Teachers is committed to the achievement of solidarity through diversity within the labor movement and total integration in a society free of discrimination against race, ethnicity, creed, age, handicap, economic status, gender, marital status, and sexual orientation, and

WHEREAS, the American Federation of Teachers opposes the resurgence of individuals, groups, and organizations that espouse bigotry, hatred, and violence against racial, ethnic, religious, gender, and sexual minorities;

RESOLVED, the American Federation of Teachers reaffirms its opposition to discrimination on the basis of sexual preference. (1988)

RIGHTS OF GAY, LESBIAN AND BISEXUAL PEOPLE

WHEREAS, the American Federation of Teachers is proud of the place it traditionally has held at the vanguard of the human rights movement, and

WHEREAS, the American Federation of Teachers recognizes the struggles of gay, lesbian and bisexual people to obtain equal rights and to end the prejudice and discrimination that they often face in a primarily heterosexual society, and

WHEREAS, we are aware that many of our colleagues, our students, our clients, our patients, and members of their families are gay, lesbian or bisexual or are involved in self-awareness issues related to their sexual identities;

RESOLVED, the American Federation of Teachers support the immediate end of all discrimination against gay, lesbian and bisexual people wherever that discrimination may exist, and

RESOLVED, that the American Federation of Teachers condemn acts that deny gay, lesbian and bisexual people the same rights and opportunities afforded the heterosexual population, and

RESOLVED, that the American Federation of Teachers encourage its member locals to negotiate contractual language to protect the rights of gay, lesbian and bisexual members, including spousal benefits for the domestic partners of these members, and

RESOLVED, that the American Federation of Teachers support the spirit of this resolution by refraining until thorough investigation and careful consideration are given from future scheduling of conventions and conferences in any town, city or state that has since 1980 criminalized consensual gay and lesbian sex or has enforced laws or codes that allow discrimination against gay, lesbian or bisexual people, unless such legislation has been found unconstitutional or the town, city, or state has been legally enjoined from enforcing it. (1994)

ACTION AGAINST AIDS

WHEREAS, the National Commission on AIDS has issued its 1991 report, which includes well-conceived recommendations for federal action;

RESOLVED, that this convention call on the president to implement, immediately and completely, the recommendation of the National Commission on AIDS. (1992)

HATE GROUPS

KU KLUX KLAN

WHEREAS, the AFT passed a resolution in August 1980 condemning the Ku Klux Klan and committing itself to the development of educational materials which combat the Klan and its racist ideas, and

WHEREAS, there also has been a resurgence of Nazi organizations, both here and in Western Europe, and there is evidence of ties between KKK and Nazi organizations, and

WHEREAS, racism and racist violence are inimical to the very principles of the labor movement of which we are a part;

RESOLVED, that the AFT condemn the recent rise of racism and racist violence in the country, and

RESOLVED, that the AFT reaffirms its commitment to develop materials by October 1, 1981, for use in locals to educate its members and to use in educational programs, around the importance of fighting racism and racist violence. (1981)

KU KLUX KLAN AND THE AMERICAN NAZI PARTY

RESOLVED, that the American Federation of Teachers, AFL-CIO, opposes actions and philosophical views of the KKK and the American Nazi Party and urges that any illegal acts of these groups be prosecuted to the fullest extent. The American Federation of Teachers supports educational programs which foster multicultural awareness and understanding, and

RESOLVED, that the American Federation of Teachers, through its publications, informs its members of the history, ideas, and current revival of the KKK and makes available materials suitable for classroom use, and

RESOLVED, that the American Federation of Teachers prints in the American Teacher this resolution in full and that the American Federation of Teachers works with other labor and human rights groups to stop the influence of the Klan and Nazi party. (1982)

RESURGENCE OF PREJUDICE AND VIOLENCE

WHEREAS, the AFT has a long history of condemning and combating prejudice and violence through its publications, materials, and actions, and

WHEREAS, recent incidents and reports of ethnic or racial confrontation, anti-Semitism, sexism, and violence against homosexuals have indicated a resurgence of hatred and intolerance, and

WHEREAS, organizations such as the Aryan Nation, the Ku Klux Klan, and the American Nazi Party, have geared their recruitment of young people to school campuses, and

WHEREAS, the hatred and the intolerance exhibited by young people who fall prey to these groups and their rhetoric are alarming;

RESOLVED, that the AFT locals be aware of the recruitment of our young people to these hate groups and work to educate their members and students about this serious problem, and

RESOLVED, that the AFT reaffirms its opposition to all forms of racism, sexism, bigotry, and intolerance and again as in the past join with others to expose and fight this resurgence of prejudice and violence, and

RESOLVED, that the AFT promote educating students, educators, and the public to high standards of sensitivity and awareness of the importance of tolerance and understanding in our diverse, democratic society. (1988)

OPPOSITION TO PREJUDICE AGAINST STUDENTS

WHEREAS, the American Federation of Teachers has consistently opposed prejudice against students, including discrimination because of race, religion, and sex, and has enacted this principle as part of its constitution, and

WHEREAS, the climate of bigotry encouraged by resurgence of such groups as the Ku Klux Klan, the so-called Moral Majority, and other right-wing groups, has contributed to the defeat of friends of organized labor in the United States, and

WHEREAS, the American Federation of Teachers can help its members by preparing lesson plans and other literature for use by teachers to combat "all forms of bias in education," which is a constitutional object of the AFT;

RESOLVED, that the AFT, in response to request from its locals and/or members, prepares lesson plans and literature to educate students about the causes and adverse effects of bigotry and prejudice. (1981)

CONTRACT LANGUAGE

DISCRIMINATION BASED ON SEXUAL ORIENTATION

WHEREAS, contract language prohibits discrimination in general, and

WHEREAS, contract language also lists specific grounds upon which an employee may not be subject to discrimination, and

WHEREAS, there is compelling evidence that employees are sometime discriminated against on the basis of sexual orientation;

RESOLVED, that union contract language should include sexual orientation among the list of reasons for which employees may not be subject to discrimination. (1990)

BEREAVEMENT LEAVE

WHEREAS, bereavement is a condition common to all people, and

WHEREAS, bereavement leave is generally included in union contracts, and

WHEREAS, domestic partnership is a close and vital relationship;

RESOLVED, that union contract language should include bereavement leave for employees on the death of a domestic partner along with all other relationships generally noted in contracts. (1990)

DOMESTIC PARTNER BENEFITS

WHEREAS, the right to form nontraditional family units characterized by mutual affection, commitment and financial interdependence and, in many cases, child rearing is a fundamental right of every adult person, and

WHEREAS, the parties to such nonmarital relationships historically have been denied certain privileges routinely accorded to traditional family units, which benefits include interalia, legal status and eligibility for certain benefits earned by employment, and

WHEREAS, many members of the American Federation of Teachers have established nontraditional family units, and

WHEREAS, certain benefits earned by employment are legitimate items for consideration in formulating contract proposals and in negotiations with health service providers;

RESOLVED, that the American Federation of Teachers recognize that domestic partner benefits are legitimate items to be considered in the formulation of contract proposals. (1992)

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CONSTITUTION AND BYLAWS

AFT CONSTITUTION

Article III Membership, Section 10. No discrimination shall ever be shown toward individual members or applicants for membership because of race, creed, sex, sexual orientation, social, political or economic status or national origin. Locals may establish procedures for admission of new members except that no discrimination shall ever be shown toward individual members or applicants for membership because of race, creed, sex, sexual orientations, social, political or economic status or national origin.

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END AFT POLICIES

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From the joint RESOLUTION ON LESBIAN, GAY AND BISEXUAL YOUTHS IN THE SCHOOLS, ADOPTED BY THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (APA) AND THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS (NASP) IN 1993:

...be it resolved that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists support providing a safe and secure educational atmosphere in which all youths, including lesbian, gay and bisexual youths, may obtain an education free from discrimination, harassment, violence, and abuse, and which promotes an understanding and acceptance of self;

The full text of the joint resolution contains a wealth of information on the topic of lesbian, gay and bisexual youths in schools, including references:

Resolution on Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Youths in the Schools

Adopted by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives on February 28, 1993, and by the National Association of School Psychologists on January 16, 1993. For more information, contact the Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concerns or the Committee on Children, Youth and Families at APA, 750 lst. St., NE, Washington, DC, 20002-4242; (202) 336-6041 and the National Association of School Psychologists, 8455 Colesville Rd., Suite 1000, Silver Spring, MD 20910, (301) 608-0500. N.B.: The APA (phone= 202-336-5700) has published a free booklet titled "Answers To Your Questions About Sexual Orientation And Homosexuality." It contains unbiased information on this topic.

Whereas society's attitudes, behaviors, and tendency to render lesbian, gay and bisexual persons invisible permeate all societal institutions including the family and school system; (Gonsiorek, 1988; Hetrick & Martin, 1988; Ponse, 1978; Uribe & Harbeck, 1992)

Whereas it is a presumption that all persons, including those who are lesbian, gay, or bisexual, have the right to equal opportunity within all public educational institutions;

Whereas current literature suggests that some youths are aware of their status as lesbian, gay, or bisexual persons by early adolescence; (Remafedi, 1987; Savin-Williams, 1990; Slater, 1988; Troiden, 1988)

Whereas many lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths and youths perceived to belong to these groups face harassment and physical violence in school environments; (Freiberg, 1987; Hetrick & Martin, 1988; Remafedi, 1987; Schaecher, 1988; Uribe & Harbeck, 1992; Whitlock, 1988)

Whereas many lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths are at risk for lowered self esteem and for engaging in self-injurious behaviors, including suicide; (Hetrick & Martin, 1988; Gonsiorek, 1988; Savin-Williams, 1990; Harry, 1989; Gibson, 1989)

Whereas gay male and bisexual youths are at an increased risk of HIV infection; (Savin-Williams, 1992)

Whereas lesbian, gay and bisexual youths of color have additional challenges to their self-esteem as a result of the negative consequences of discrimination based on both sexual orientation and ethnic/racial minority status; (Garnets & Kimmel, 1991)

Whereas lesbian, gay and bisexual youths with physical or mental disabilities are at increased risk due to the negative consequence of societal prejudice toward persons with mental or physical disabilities; (Pendler & Hingsburger, 1991; Hingsburger & Griffiths, 1986)

Whereas lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths who are poor or working class may face additional risks; (Gordon, Schroeder & Abramo, 1990)

Whereas psychologists affect policies and practices within educational environments;

Whereas psychology promotes the individual's development of personal identity including the sexual orientation of all individuals;

Therefore be it resolved that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists shall take a leadership role in promoting societal and familial attitudes and behaviors that affirm the dignity and rights, within educational environments, of all lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths, including those with physical or mental disabilities and from all ethnic/racial backgrounds and classes;

Therefore be it resolved that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists support providing a safe and secure educational atmosphere in which all youths, including lesbian, gay and bisexual youths, may obtain an education free from discrimination, harassment, violence, and abuse, and which promotes an understanding and acceptance of self;

Therefore be it resolved that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists encourage psychologists to develop and evaluate interventions that foster nondiscriminatory environments, lower risk for HIV infection, and decrease self-injurious behaviors in lesbian, gay and bisexual youths;

Therefore be it resolved that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists shall advocate efforts to ensure the funding of basic and applied research on and scientific evaluations of interventions and programs designed to address the issues of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths in the schools, and programs for HIV prevention targeted at gay and bisexual youths;

Therefore be it resolved that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists shall work with other organizations in efforts to accomplish these ends.

References

Freiberg, P. (1987, September). Sex education and the gay issue: What are they teaching about us in the schools?, The Advocate. 42-48.

Garnets, L. & Kimmel, D. (1991). Lesbian and gay male dimensions in the psychological study of human diversity. In J. Goodchilds (Ed.), Psychological Perspectives on Human Diversity in America (pp. 156-160). Washington, DC, American Psychological Association.

Gonsiorek, J. C. (1988). Mental health issues of gay and lesbian adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 9, 114-122.

Gordon B. N., Schroeder, C. S., & Abramo, J. M. (1990). Age and social class differences in children's knowledge of sexuality. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19 (1), 33-43.

Gibson, P. (1989). Gay male and lesbian youth suicide. In M. Feinleib (Ed.), Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide, Washington, DC, Department of Health and Human Services. (Vol. 3, pp. 110-142).

Harry, J. (1989). Sexual identity issues. In M. Feinleib (Ed.), Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide, Washington, DC, Department of Health and Human Services. (Vol. 2, pp. 131-142).

Hetrick, E. S. & Martin, A. D. (1988). Developmental issues and their resolution for gay and lesbian adolescents. In E. Coleman (Ed.), Integrated identity for gay men and lesbians: Psychotherapeutic approaches for emotional well-being (pp. 25-43). Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press.

Hingsburger, D. & Griffiths, D. (1986). Dealing with sexuality in a community residential service. Psychiatric Aspects of Mental Retardation Reviews, 5 (12), 63-67.

Pendler, B. & Hingsburger, D. (1991). Sexuality: Dealing with parents. Special Issue: Sexuality and developmental disability. Sexuality and Disability, 9 (2), 123-130.

Ponse, B. (1978). Identities in the lesbian world: The social construction of the self. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Remafedi, G. (1987). Adolescent homosexuality: Psychosocial and medical implications. Pediatrics, 79, 331-337.

Savin-Williams, R. C. (1990). Gay and lesbian youth: Expressions of identity. New York, NY: Hemisphere.

Savin-Williams, R. C. (1992). Deadly Silence: Our neglect of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths. Prepared for the APA CLGC/CYF Subcommittee on Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Youths.

Schaecher, R. (1988, Winter). Stresses on lesbian and gay adolescents. Independent Schools, 29-35.

Slater, B. R. (1988). Essential issues in working with lesbian and gay male youths. Professional psychology: Research and practice, 19, 226-235.

Troiden, R. R. (1988). Gay and lesbian identity: A sociological study. Dix Hills, NY: General Hall.

Uribe, V. & Harbeck, K. M. (1992). Addressing the needs of lesbian, gay and bisexual youth: The origins of Project 10 and school-based intervention. In K. Harbeck (Ed.) Coming out of the classroom closet: Gay and lesbian students, teachers and curriculum (pp. 9-28). Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press.

Whitlock, K. (Ed.) (1988). Bridges of Respect: Creating support for lesbian and gay youth. Philadelphia, PA: American Friends Service Committee.

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END APA STATEMENT

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From:SARATOGANY@aol.com
Date:Thu, 24 Jan 2002 11:36:37 EST
Subject:National Association of School Psychologist Position on GLB Youth

Message from:
The Coalition for Safer Schools of NYS, PO Box 2345, Malta, NY 12020
Email to:SARATOGANY@aol.com
The Real or Perceived Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgendered Student Protection Project

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National Association of School Psychologists, NASP

http://www.nasponline.org/information/pospaper_glb.html
NASP Position Statement on Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth

Position Statement on Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth

Youth who become aware of a minority sexual orientation within themselves during childhood or adolescence are at greater risk for a number of dangerous or harmful situations or activities. The most prominent risks include suicide, physical and verbal harassment, exposure to the HIV virus, and substance abuse. In addition, these youth are often rejected, emotionally and physically, by their families and may become homeless as a result of the disclosure of their sexual orientation. Society's attitudes and behaviors toward these youth render them invisible. As a result, this group suffers from a lack of resources to deal with the problems caused by the internalized sense of inadequacy and low self-esteem. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth who also have disabilities or are members of other minority groups have additional barriers to receiving appropriate education and mental health care within the school system and society as a whole.

The National Association of School Psychologists supports equal access to education and mental health services for sexual minority youth within public and private schools. This can be accomplished through:1) education of students and staff, 2) direct counseling with students who are experiencing difficulties within themselves or with others due to actual or perceived minority sexual orientation, 3) advocacy for such youth within the school and the community settings, 4) support of research on evaluations of interventions and programs designed to address the needs of gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth in schools, and 5) support of programs for HIV prevention directed at gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth.

Violence and intimidation directed at sexual minority youth, whether aimed at an individual through direct harassment or at the entire group through antigay statements or biases, violate the right of these students to receive equal educational opportunities. NASP believes that school psychologists are ethically obligated to ensure that these students have an equal opportunity for the development of their personal identity in an environment free from discrimination, harassment, violence, and abuse. To achieve this goal, efforts must be made through education and advocacy for these youth to reduce discrimination and harassment against sexual minority youth by both students and staff.

Creating Safe Schools for Sexual Minority Youth
Schools must maintain campuses that are safe and conducive to learning for all students. NASP believes that efforts to create safe schools for sexual minority youth should include but not be limited to education of all students and staff, direct intervention with victims and perpetrators of harassment and discrimination of those at risk, and promoting societal and familial attitudes and behaviors that affirm the dignity and rights of gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth.

Education of students and staff. Because many gay, lesbian, and bisexual students choose not to reveal their sexual orientation for fear of harassment, other students and staff are often not aware of their presence. Staff and students who are aware and supportive may fear openly speaking out for sexual minority youth because of the possibility of being discriminated against themselves. Even among those who are aware of the existence of sexual minority youth in their school, many maintain misconceptions regarding these youth and may be unsure how to address their needs. NASP supports educating students and staff regarding the existence and needs of sexual minority youth through inservice training on the risks experienced by these youth, research relevant to these youth, and appropriate ways of addressing harassment and discrimination directed toward any student. In addition, issues pertaining to sexual orientation can be infused in the curriculum, such as presenting theories regarding the development of sexual orientation in a science class, reading works of famous gay, lesbian, or bisexual authors in a literature class, or discussing the gay rights movement in historical context with other civil rights movements in a social studies class. Sexual minority youth must also be educated to reduce unsafe behavior such as substance abuse and exposure to HIV. In addition, educating these youth can reduce the isolation they often feel as a result of perceiving themselves as invisible or as misunderstood.

Direct intervention with victims and perpetrators of harassment and discrimination. As with any instance of school violence, harassment and discrimination against sexual minority youth should be addressed both through applying consequences and educating the perpetrator and by supporting and protecting the victim. Both goals can be achieved through nonjudgmental counseling for students who have been victims of such harassment or who are questioning their sexual orientation and may become targets of harassment in the future by disclosing their status as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Counseling and education should also be provided to the perpetrator to help prevent future episodes of harassment. Because school staff may, knowingly or unknowingly, discriminate against sexual minority youth, NASP believes that education and support for sexual minority youth must occur at all levels of schooling. This education should include students, teachers, support staff, and administrators and should stress that discrimination and harassment must be addressed regardless of the status of the perpetrator.

Promoting societal and familial attitudes and behaviors that affirm the dignity and rights within educational environments of gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. By educating students and staff, school psychologists can help change negative or indifferent attitudes toward sexual minority youth. However, a much more powerful agent of change may be the example of the school psychologist who refuses to allow slurs or discrimination to occur and who is willing to provide services to all students regardless of sexual orientation or other minority status. Within their own schools and in society as a whole, school psychologists can promote attitudes that affirm the dignity and rights of sexual minority youth by removing biases from their own practice. They can also point out the actions or statements of other school staff who discriminate or neglect the needs of sexual minority youth and attempt to address these issues in a fair way. In particular, school policies should mandate fair treatment of all students and equal access to educational and mental health services within the schools. School psychologists can provide expert opinions and research-based information to assure that such policies are in place and enforced. Finally, school psychologists can encourage local, state, and national organizations to disseminate information to parents and other groups that need to be aware of the issues related to gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth in the schools.

Role of the School Psychologist
Because they work directly with students as well as staff and administrators, school psychologists are uniquely positioned to affect policies and practices within the schools. They can also teach by example. School psychologists can explicitly inform students that they are available to all students regardless of sexual orientation. In counseling sessions, they can be mindful that not every student is heterosexual and that sexual minority status can affect self-esteem and peer relationships. School psychologists can address issues of sexual orientation in inservice sessions as well. In presenting material on sexual harassment or discrimination, for example, they can take care to include examples and information involving sexual minority youth. School psychologists are also in a position to educate students on a number of issues related to high risk behaviors that are especially frequent among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth, targeting both the school population in general and sexual minority youth in particular.

Summary
NASP recognizes that students who are of a minority sexual orientation, or are perceived to be, are at risk of a number of dangerous and destructive behaviors as well as harassment, discrimination, and low self-esteem. A successful program to address these issues educates both those who discriminate and those who are discriminated against because of sexual orientation. This education can occur on a number of levels:intervention with individual students, schoolwide inservice training, and modeling behaviors attitudes and behaviors by school psychologists in daily interactions with all students and staff. Any program designed to address the needs of sexual minority youth should also include efforts to educate parents and the community through involvement with other organizations committed to equal opportunity for education and mental health services for all youth. Schools can only be truly safe when every student, regardless of sexual orientation, is assured of access to an education without fear of harassment or violence.

References
Besner, H., & Spungin, C. (1995). Gay and lesbian students:Understanding their needs. Washington, DC:Taylor & Francis.

Garofola, R., Wolf, R.C., Kessel, S., Palfrey, J., & DuRant, R.H. (1998). The association between risk behaviors and sexual orientation among a school-based sample of adolescents. Pediatrics, 101(5), 895-902.

Hunter, J. (1990). Violence against lesbian and gay male youths. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5(3), 295-300.

Kourany, R.F.C. (1987). Suicide among homosexual adolescents. Journal of Homosexuality, 13(4), 111-117.

Marzuk, P. M., Tierney, H., Tardiff, K., et al. (1988). Increased risk of suicide in persons with AIDS. Journal of the American Medical Association, 259, 1333-1337.

Morales, E. (1990). Ethnic minority families and minority gays and lesbians. In Bozett, F. & Sussman, M. (eds.) Homosexuality and family relations. Binghamton, NY:Harrington Press.

Owens, Jr., R.E. (1998). Queer kids:The challenges and promise for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. New York:Harrington Park Press.

Remafedi, G. (1993). The impact of training on school professionals - knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors regarding HIV-AIDS and adolescent homosexuality. Journal of School Health, 63(3), 153-157.

Remafedi, G. (1994). The state of knowledge on gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth suicide. In G. Remapped (Ed.) Death by denial:Studies of suicide in gay lesbian teenagers. Boston:Alyson Publications, Inc.

Remafedi, G., Farrow, J. A., & Deisher, R. W. (1991). Risk factors for attempted suicide in gay and bisexual youth. Pediatrics, 87(6), 869-875.

Remafedi, G., French, S., Story, M., Resnick, M.D., & Blum, R. (1998). The relationship between suicide risk and sexual orientation:Results of a population-based study. American Journal of Public Health, 88(1), 57-60.

Rosario, M., Hunter, J., & Gwadz, M. (1997). Exploration of substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth:Prevalence and correlates. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12(4), 457-476.

Ryan, C., & Futterman, D. (1998). Lesbian and gay youth:Care and counseling. New York:Columbia University Press.

Schneider, A. G., Farberow, N. L., & Kruks, G.N (1989). Suicidal behavior in adolescent and young adult gay men. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 19(4), 381-394.

Shaffer, D. (1993, May 3). Political science. The New Yorker, p. 116.

The Governor's Commission on Gay and Lesbian Youth (1993). Making schools safe for gay and lesbian youth:Breaking the silence in schools and in families (Publication No. 17296-60-500-2/93-C.R.). Boston, MA:Author.

Tremble, B., Schneider, M., & Appathurai, C. (1989). Growing up gay or lesbian in a multicultural context. Journal of Homosexuality, 17(3/4), 253-267.

Unks, G. (Ed.) (1995). The gay teen:Educational practice and theory for lesbian, gay and bisexual adolescents. New York:Routledge.

- Adopted by the NASP Delegate Assembly, April 10, 1999

© 2002 National Association of School Psychologists, 4340 East West Highway, Suite 402, Bethesda MD 20814 - 301-657-0270.

Please note that NASP periodically revises its Position Statements. We encourage you to check the NASP website at http://www.nasponline.org to ensure that you have the most current version of this Position Statement.

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This message has been distributed as a free informational service for the expressed interest of non-profit research and educational purposes only.

PRIMER WEBSITES

GLSEN --- Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network
www.glsen.org
Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund
www.lambdalegal.org
Safe Schools Coalition
www.safeschoolscoalition.org
The P.E.R.S.O.N. Project Home Page
www.youth.org/loco/PERSONProject/

Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays
www.pflag.org
Empire State (NY) Pride Agenda
www.prideagenda.org
GLAAD

Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation
www.glaad.org
Unity Through Diversity (Long Island)
http://www.geocities.com/WestHollywood/Castro/3212/
LIGALY Long Island Gay and Lesbian Youth
http://www.ligaly.com/

"The Real or Perceived Gay Lesbian Bisexual Transgendered Student Protection Project"
("Being safe at school should not be a radical concept".. Jamie Nabozny)

A project of:
Coalition for Safer Schools of New York State

John Myers
Director of Operations and Programs
PO Box 2345
Malta, NY 12020
(518) 587-0176

Email:saratogany@aol.com

(To subscribe or unsubscribe (CSS-NYS Email List) send request to saratogany@aol.com)

From a 95 Jun 29 letter from the National Association of Elementary School Principals, 1615 Duke St., Alexandria, VA, 22314-3483, Voice: 703-684-3345, Fax: 703-548-6021:

...we do not have such a policy (banning discrimination in employment practices on the basis of sexual orientation) at this time, but (June Million, NAESP Director of Public Information) thinks it's a good idea and "will bring it up to the [15-member] Board of Directors" (parentheses added).
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>From the 1994 policies and recommendations of the National Association of State Boards of Education, 1012 Cameron St., Alexandria, VA, 22314, Voice: 703-684-4000, Fax: 703-836-2313:

State boards should provide leadership in eliminating the stereotypes and discrimination on the basis of sex, age, disability, race, religion, sexual orientation, ethnic background or national origin in curriculum materials, counseling methods or other education processes.
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Next Part of Appendix III

Last updated 7/26/2004 by Jean Richter, richter@eecs.Berkeley.EDU